As we know, architecture is the process and product of designing, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures. Architectural works in the physical form of buildings often regard as cultural symbols and works of art. Historical civilizations are constantly identifying with the architectural achievements that remain in them. This practice, which dates back to prehistoric times, has been used to express culture for student cultures on all seven continents. For this reason, architecture is considered an art.
Theory Of Architecture
The only surviving written work on architecture by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century is De Architecture. According to Vitruvius, a good building must meet the three principles of durability, utility, and beauty commonly known in the original translation as stability, commodity, and delight. According to Vitruvius, the architect should try to fulfill each of these three qualities as much as possible. Leon Batista Alberti, who elaborates on Vitruvius’s in his book Diri Edificatoria, sees beauty as a fundamental proportion, but jewelry also contributes to it. For Alberti, the rules of proportion are the rule of the golden mean, the ideal human figure.
The most important aspect of beauty is the intrinsic part of something that applies to the surface of an object. It bases on universal, recognizable truths. On the other hand, it was not until the 16th century that the concept of style developed in art with the writing of Giorgio Vasari. By the 18th century, his masterpieces had been translated into Italian, French, Spanish, and English by sculptors, sculptors, and architects.
In the 16th century, the Italian Mannerist architect, painter and theorist Sebastiano Cerlio wrote the Tutte L’Opere D’Architettura et Prospetiva. This thesis had a great impact throughout Europe. The first handbook emphasized the theoretical aspects of architecture more practically and was the first time the Five Orders were listing.
Prominent 19th-century architect Louis Sullivan developed a great motto for architectural design. The idea that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to activism became popular and skeptical, influencing Vitruvius’ introduction of the concept of “functionality” instead of “utility.” “Activity” sees as a combination of all the criteria of building use, cognition, and entertainment, not only in practice but also in aesthetic, psychological, and cultural aspects. The philosophies that influenced modern architects and their approach. Especially, building design includes rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, poststructuralism, dissociation, and phenomenology.
On the other hand, in the late 20th century, a new concept added to those entering the compass in both structure and function. Also, to meet contemporary values, a building must build in an environmentally friendly manner according to its material production, its impact on the environment’s natural and built environment, and the demands for non-sustainable energy sources. So that, for heating, cooling, water and waste management, and lighting.
Types Of Architecture
Generally, landscape architecture is the design of outdoor public spaces, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, socio-behavioral, or aesthetic benefits. It includes the systematic investigation of existing social, environmental, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape and planning interventions to produce the desired results. A professional in landscape architecture is called a landscape architect.
Interior architecture is about creating structural boundaries and a space created by human interaction within these boundaries. It can also be a design for start-up and a use plan, then a redesign to suit a modified purpose or a significantly revised design for adaptive reuse of the building shell. Conserving resources by “recycling” a structure through adapted redesign is part of sustainable architecture. Interior architecture, commonly referred to as the spatial art of environmental design, form, and use is how the interiors of buildings design to consider all aspects of human use in structural spaces. Simply put, interior architecture is the design of an interior in terms of architecture.
Naval architecture, also introduced as naval engineering, is the engineering discipline of the engineering design process, shipbuilding, maintenance. And especially, operation of marine vessels and structures. Especially, Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design, development, design evaluation, and calculations at every stage of marine life. The main activities are the basic design of the vessel, its detailed design, construction, testing, operation and maintenance, launch, and drywalling. Ship modification also requires ship design calculations by modification, reconstruction, modernization. The naval architecture includes the formulation of safety regulations and damage control laws and the approval and certification of ship plans to meet statutory and non-statutory requirements.
Urban Design Architecture
Urban design is designing and shaping the physical features of cities, towns, and villages. Unlike architecture that focuses on individual building design, urban planning deals with large-scale buildings, streets and public spaces, neighborhoods, districts, and cities as a whole. Urban designing is an interdisciplinary field that uses many built-up environmental professions, especially landscape architecture, urban planning architecture, civil engineering, and urban engineering. Besides, it is common for professionals in all these areas to master urban planning. Various sub-areas of urban design have emerged in more recent times. Such as strategic urban planning, landscape urbanization, water-sensitive urban planning, and sustainable urbanization.
Domestic architecture is producing for the social unit: the individual, family, or clan and their dependents, human and animal. It gives shelter and security for the basic physical functions of life and sometimes for commercial, industrial, or agricultural activities involving the family unit rather than the community. The basic architecture requirements are simple: a place to sleep, prepare food, eat and sometimes work. A place with some light and weather protection. Requires a single room, door, window, and fireplace with strong walls and roof. Everything else can be considered a luxury.
The history of architecture is more concerned with religious buildings than any other type. Because of the universal and superior religious appeal of many ancient cultures, the church or temple became the most revealing, permanent. And also the most influential building in any community. The typewriting of religious architecture is complex, as basic requirements such as home architecture are not familiar to all religions. They all change with the evolution of cultural patterns as the functions of any religion are linking to different activities.
The architect usually begins work when he has determined the land and type, and cost of a building. Type is the generalized model established by society and is adapted to the specific use that the building requires. Cost is the economics of land, labor, and materials that must adjust for a given amount of money. Thus, planning is the process of reconciling the demands of the environment, consumption, and economy. This process has cultural as well as utility value. When designing a plan for any social activity, the architect inevitably influences how that activity is carrying out.